Access by Consumers to Essential Services: Energy, Water and Sanitation

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The present report aims to provide policy makers with background on the emerging trends and considerations as well as policy options, focusing on the key requirements for inclusive and affordable access. Following this introduction, chapter two provides an overview of the international policy frameworks, namely the Guidelines and the Sustainable Development Goals. Chapter three describes the features of the network services of water and sanitation, and energy, and places them in the consumer protection framework of inclusivity, affordability, and rights. Chapter four considers the role to be played by competitive markets and the interplay of competition policy and the regularization of the informal sector. Chapter five contains several policy options in the light of sustainability, including demand and supply-side efficiencies and fiscal options for demand reduction. A brief conclusion follows with a summary of policy considerations.


UNCTAD/Division on International Trade and Commodities (DITC)
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