Handbook on Probation Services

Guidelines for Probation Practitioners and Managers

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Will probation survive into the next century given the problems and adaptive challenges. The international community recognized, in 1988, the importance of probation as a non-custodial measure, when the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-Custodial Measures (The Tokyo Rules) were formulated and subsequently adopted in 1990. One of the main aims of this handbook is to serve as an instrument to guide and facilitate the comprehension and the implementation of the Tokyo Rules in countries where probation exists and in countries interested in such a system. Along with presenting a historical background of probation, the publication discusses emerging trends, professional responsibilities, management and administration.


United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
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