This series assesses the latest scientific studies on current and estimated future greenhouse gas emissions and compares these with the emission levels permissible for the world to progress on a least-cost pathway to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. This difference between “where we are likely to be and where we need to be” is known as the ‘emissions gap’. Each new edition of the report explores some of the most important options available for countries to bridge the gap. These reports are prepared by an international team of leading scientists, assessing all available information, published in multiple scientific studies. The assessment methodology and preliminary findings are made available to the governments of the countries specifically mentioned in each report to provide them with the opportunity to comment on the findings.