Censuses provide much of the basic population information that countries need for development. The Handbook aims to help UN member countries make use of recent technological developments such as geographic information systems (GIS), remote sensing, and global positioning systems, for improving census quality and analytical products offered by national statistical organizations. In times of humanitarian crisis, geographically specific population information can provide the means to target relief efforts and save lives. The handbook describes the methods for and the philosophy behind the application of new technology to improve census efforts, for both managers and technicians, illustrating that information infrastructure is of key importance for all countries. It also addresses technical and practical issues which are the concerns of census cartographers and takers.