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Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series

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BANANA SPLIT HOW EU POLICIES

Banana Split

How EU Policies Divide Global Producers

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
10 Feb 2006
Banana prices within the European Union are almost double world levels. These prices are maintained by restrictive import quotas and tariffs that generate rents that accrue to producers and distributors. The European Union is obliged to remove its quantitative restrictions and replace them with t...
SMOKE & MIRRORS MAKING SENSE

Smoke and Mirrors

Making Sense of WTO Industrial Tariff Negotiations

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
2 Jun 2006
Tariffs for industrial products are a key element of the ongoing WTO negotiations. However, rather than clarifying the issues, the framework text agreed on 1 August 2004 leaves considerable uncertainty about the future direction of the talks. This paper looks in some detail at the main implicatio...
INTL TRADE GMO

International Trade in GMOs and GM Products

National and Multilateral Legal Frameworks

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
17 Jun 2005
This study reports that genetically modified crops pose especially difficult choices for the world’s poorer nations. Agro-biotechnology may allow higher yields and provide other benefits, but it also involves technology that might be inadequate for the needs of developing countries. While countri...
TRADE POLICY AT THE CROSSROADS

Trade Policy at the Crossroads

The Indonesian Story

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
17 Jun 2005
Following the crises of the late 1990s and the subsequent slowdown in the world economy, many countries are at the crossroads in their trade strategy, uncertain whether to advance with trade reforms, to stand still or increase protection. Support for the WTO multilateral negotiations now appears ...
SWIMMING IN THE SPAGHETTI BOWL

Swimming in the Spaghetti Bowl

Challenges for Developing Countries under the New Regionalism

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
11 Mar 2005
The 1990’s witnessed the resurgence of interest in regional trade agreements (RTAs) throughout the world. RTAs continue to proliferate as an idea as well as political-economic fact, and are likely to remain an enduring feature of the trading system. The purpose of this paper is to present some pr...
USER MANUAL & HNDBK ON AGRICU

User Manual and Handbook on Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model (ATPSM)

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
11 Mar 2005
This report contains instructions in the use of the Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model (ATPSM). ATPSM is designed of detailed analysis of agricultural trade policy issues. It can be used as a tool by researchers and negotiators alike for quantifying the economic effects at the global and ...
SHIFTING SANDS SEARCHING COMPRO

Shifting Sands

Searching for a Compromise in the WTO Negotiations on Agriculture

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
8 Oct 2004
The WTO negotiations on agriculture remain deadlocked after four years of discussion, and efforts to find a solution at Cancún failed. Analysis of the various proposals using the UNCTAD/FAO Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model (ATPSM) shows that most of the benefits from liberalization accr...
AGRICULT TRADE REFORM & POVER

Agriculture, Trade Reform and Poverty Reduction

Implications for Sub-Saharan Africa

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
16 Jul 2004
Prepared by the UN Conference of Trade and Development, this study addresses the effects of WTO trade reform on poverty at three levels: on developing countries as a group; on different types of developing countries; and on different types of households in developing countries. The results point ...
EXPORT PERFORMANCE & ITS DETERMI

Export Performance and Its Determinants

Supply and Demand Constraints

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
25 Jun 2004
Using a quantile regression econometric formula, this study examines the relationship between export performance, supply capacity factors and foreign market access. The main determinants of export performance are discussed and the results of the study are explained.
ASSESSING SOUTH SOUTH REGION INT

Assessing South-south Regional Integration

Same Issues Many Metrics

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
6 Jun 2003
The number of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) has increased over time. So have the complexity of issues surrounding their formation and the metrics used to assess them. Despite sustained research efforts, and irrespective of the approach adopted, the economic merits or demerits of regional integ...
INTL TRADE & LABOUR MARKET PERFORM

International Trade and Labour Market Performance

Major Findings and Open Questions

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
6 Jun 2003
This paper summarizes the results of recent research into the effects of international trade on labor demand highlighting three areas, which may require further investigation. These areas being: the relationship between labor market variables and trade policy measures; the issue of trade and lab...
TRADE IN SERVICES MARKET ACCESS

Trade in Services

Market Access Opportunities and the Benefits of Liberalization for Developing Countries

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
6 Jun 2003
The service sector is the most important sector for most developed economies being the largest contributor to gross domestic product, production, and employment. Developing economies on the other hand have a comparative advantage in labor services. There abundance of low and semi-skilled labor ...
QUANTIFICATION OF NON TARIFF

Quantification of Non-tariff Measures

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
11 Oct 2002
The increase in the relative importance of non-tariff measures has increased awareness of the various deficiencies in existing non-tariff measures (NTM) data collections. This paper is concerned with the measurement of non-tariff measures (NTMs) for use in the formulation of trade policy. First, ...
DUTY & QUOTA FREE ACCESS FOR LDC

Duty and Quota-free Access for LDCs

Further Evidence From CGE Modelling

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
28 Jun 2002
This study is an extension of the work entitled Duty and Quota Free Market Access for LDCs: An Analysis of Quad Initiatives. Its purpose is to assess the effects of trade policy initiatives aimed at improving market access for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in Quad countries (Canada, European ...
ASSESSING REGIONAL TRADE

Assessing Regional Trade Arrangements

Are South-south RTAs More Trade Diverting?

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
21 Feb 2002
It has generally been argued that regional trade agreements among developing countries may induce potential adverse effects on trade patterns among RTA members and between them and third countries. Using an expanded gravity model this paper estimates for a number of RTAs among developing countrie...
POST URUGUAY ROUND MARKET ACCESS

Post-Uruguay Round Market Access Barriers for Industrial Products

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
8 Feb 2002
Both the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) secretariats have a long history of research on the pattern and effects of border protection. The purpose of this study is to combine the efforts of the two secretariats and examine the lan...
TARIFFS & THE EAST ASIAN

Tariffs and the East Asian Financial Crisis

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
30 Nov 2001
This study examines the role of tariffs during the East Asian financial crisis and finds that there is a role of tariffs when it comes to fighting the negative impact of a financial downturn. The first section reviews the pre-crisis trade environment, examining economic performance and main polic...
SERVICES SECTOR REFORM & DEV STRAT

Services Sector Reform and Development Strategies

Issues and Research Priorities

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
30 Nov 2001
The purpose of this paper is to review some of the empirical work, which can provide relevant inputs to the implementation of strategies for use in the General Agreement on Trade Services (GATS) negotiations and for domestic policy reform. It makes the case for a more coherent approach to the des...
ASSESSING REGIONAL TRADING

Assessing Regional Trading Arrangements in the Asia-Pacific

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
16 Nov 2001
Using both a gravity model to consider the natural trading bloc hypothesis and simulation using a computer generated equilibrium (CGE) model to make welfare estimates, this publication examines the potential effect of a subset of the new regional trading arrangement (RTA) proposal in the Asia Pac...
REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS & DEV

Regional Trade Agreements and Developing Countries

The Case of the Pacific Island's Proposed Free Trade Agreement

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
16 Nov 2001
Fourteen of the world's smallest and most vulnerable economies - the Forum Island Countries (FICs) of the Pacific island region - are in the process of forming themselves into a free trade area (FTA). This paper reviews the characteristics of the Forum Island Countries (FICs) and their external t...
INTEGR APPROACH AGRIC TRADE & DEV

Integrated Approach to Agricultural Trade and Development Issues, An

Exploring the Welfare and Distribution Issues

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
16 Nov 2001
Computable general equilibrium (CGE) analysis has become a well-established methodology for the estimation of trade and welfare effects resulting from trade liberalization. This paper reviews CGE studies of trade liberalization within the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), including studie...
ANTI DUMPING & COUNTERVAIL PROC

Anti-dumping and Countervailing Procedures

Use or Abuse? Implications for Developing Countries

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
29 Jun 2001
Anti-dumping (AD) and countervailing (CV) measures have become popular substitutes for traditional trade barriers, which are gradually being reduced in the course of regional and multilateral trade liberalization. This publication analyzes the distribution, duration and final outcomes of AD and C...
IS THERE EFFECTIVELY A LEVEL PLAYI

Is There Effectively a Level Playing Field for Developing Country Exports?

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
29 Jun 2001
This publication investigates the extent to which progress in reducing impediments and distortions to trade has levelled the playing field for developing country exports. It also looks into whether, and how, critical measures and disparities in post- Uruguay Round practice are actually dealt with...
IS THE EXPORT LED GROWTH HYPOTHESI

Is the Export-led Growth Hypothesis Valid for Developing Countries? A Case Study of Costa Rica

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
23 Feb 2001
The export-led growth hypothesis (ELGH) states that export growth is one of the key determinants of economic growth. This study goes beyond the traditional neoclassical theory of production by estimating an augmented Cobb-Douglas production function. The study tests the hypothesis by analyzing th...
WHAT CAN THE DEV CTRIES INFER

What Can the Developing Countries Infer from the Uruguay Round Models for Future Negotiations

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
26 Jan 2001
This paper discusses the results from trade models executed towards the end of the Uruguay Round. The paper argues that there are substantial inconsistencies across model results. It also attempts to discuss what, if any, are the implications for the developing countries, and the possible ways in...
INDUSTRIAL POLICY & THE WTO

Industrial Policy and the WTO

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
9 Feb 2001
This paper aims to review the objectives and instruments of industrial policy in a changing global context. It addresses such issues as: justification for industrial policy; importance of analytical framework; the use of different instruments for industrial policy; role of industrial policy in th...
ASSESSING THE RESULTS GENERAL

Assessing the Results of General Equilibrium Studies of Multilateral Trade Negotiations

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
26 Jan 2001
This paper gives an assessment of the Uruguay Round (UR) four years after its implementation. The goal of this publication is to draw lessons on how to approach the assessment of the next round so that useful insights are extracted and misperceptions avoided. The paper offers an overview of the c...
E-COMMERCE WTO & DEV COUNTRIES

E-Commerce, WTO and Developing Countries

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
26 Jan 2001
Electronic commerce offers unprecedented opportunities to both developing and developed countries. This paper notes that in the long run, developing countries have more to benefit from electronic commerce. The publication discusses the policy issues e-commerce raises for the World Trade Organizat...
TARIFFS TAXES & ELECTRONIC COMM

Tariffs, Taxes and Electronic Commerce

Revenue Implications for Developing Countries

Series:
Policy Issues in International Trade and Commodities Study Series
26 Jan 2001