Trafficking in human beings has become a serious global concern. International criminal groups, whose activities often include other forms of illicit trade such as smuggling of drugs and arms, often control trafficking in persons as well. In addition to abusing human rights, and violating labour and migration laws, trafficking in persons is also a problem of national and international security. This publication reviews the legal and sociological aspects of trafficking of women in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It has also provided the framework of the IOM’s pilot project “Research, Information and Legislation on Trafficking in Women in the Baltic States”. By offering a systematic picture of the challenge of trafficking women in the region, the results of the project paved the way for IOM’s practical activities in preventing trafficking in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.