Climate change, demand for development and already deteriorating state of ecosystems produce an immediate need for innovative opportunities enabling development and human well-being without undermining ecosystem services. Rainwater harvesting creates synergies by upgrading rainfed agriculture and enhancing productive landscapes. The publication describes rainwater harvesting systems, their roles and impacts. It focuses to both negative and positive aspects of using technology and explains how we can decrease constraints and build upon benefits. It examines 29 cases of different economic activities including forestry, agriculture, watershed development and, rural and urban development.