For millennia, humans have altered the world's ecosystems to meet their growing demands for food, fibre and water or to build cities, roads or other infrastructure. Many of these changes to ecosystems have unquestionably benefited humanity. But with the benefit of hindsight, we can see many that were ill advised. Until now, our approach to managing ecosystems has been largely one of trial and error, with hindsight as our most powerful tool. GLOBIO is a pioneering attempt to meet the needs of decision-makers and the public for scientifically based information about the consequences of their choices today for the future of biodiversity, sustainable development and local cultures. The scenarios available in this publication are not predictions of the future; rather they are tools that decision-makers can use to explore possible outcomes of choices they make today.