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The author, David A. Wirth, examines the increasingly important role of science in the structure and operation of international trade agreements. This paper analyzes and summarizes the relevant texts, including the original 1947 GATT, the Uruguay Round and the NAFTA texts on standards. It considers the role of science in the standard-setting process with reference to the abundant literature on this topic. It also takes up the question of the application of the science-based trade disciplines in the Uruguay Round and NAFTA texts in the context of the quasi-adjudicatory trade agreement dispute settlement process.